1. Introduction

Artificial Intelligence Circuits and Systems (AICAS) are electronic circuits and systems designed to solve artificial intelligence (AI) problems and perform tasks. These devices are usually implemented by analogue and digital electronics and can focus on specific AI problems like decision making, image recognition, natural language processing and many others. AICAS are being used successfully in a variety of fields including medical devices, robotics, autonomous vehicles and smart homes. They can also be used in cloud computing and data centers to increase the speed of AI calculations. Examples of AICAS are neural network processors (NNPs) and artificial neural networks, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), digital signal processors (DSPs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) that perform parallelizable calculations and highly efficient. AICAS are usually developed by computer scientists and engineers with background in AI and electronics. They require a very good understanding of these areas to optimize circuit and system (CAS) efficiency, reliability, and performance. The purpose of this editorial is to provide brief information about the past, current status and future of AICAS.

2. History of AICAS

AICAS dates back to the mid-20th century, when scientists began to investigate the possibility of building machines that could perform tasks previously performed only by humans. One of the first attempts to build an electronic device capable of thinking like a human was the Electronic Numerical Computer and Integrator (ENIAC), developed in 1946. The ENIAC was not designed specifically for AI tasks, but it was the first programmable computer and a foundation solid foundation for future developments in this area. Scientists began to consider using artificial neural networks to simulate how the human brain works in the 1950s, and this led to the development of perceptrons as simple neural networks to solve classification problems. AI research was transferred to expert systems in the 1980s to solve industrial problems using knowledge-based rules. Researchers started developing deep neural networks in the 1990s as more complex models could learn from large datasets and were used in computer vision, speech recognition, and other fields. The 2010s saw significant advances in AI hardware.

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3. Current situation in the AICAS area

Today, some of the significant advances in AICAS are related to NNPs, FPGAs, DSPs, GPUs and memristors. NNPs are specialized integrated chips for creating deep neural networks (DNNs) applicable in speech and image recognition. They are based on highly parallel architectures and can perform millions of calculations per second. FPGAs are highly parallel programmable electronic schemes used for a wide range of computing tasks, such as B. real-time image processing, can be configured and used. DSPs are specialized onboard chips for manipulating and processing digital signals and are used in AI applications such as audio processing and speech recognition. GPUs are designed for graphics rendering and are commonly used for AI computing and deep neural network training. Memristor is the fourth fundamental circuit element, predicted in 1970s and rediscovered in HP laboratories in 2008. It is a new circuit device with very good storage and switching properties, nanoscale dimensions, low power consumption and good compatibility with Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. Memristors can be used for energy-efficient information storage and processing in high-density integrated chips applicable in non-volatile memory, artificial neural networks and neuromorphic computing circuits.

Currently, AICAS are used in several areas of industry, as well as in finance, health, automation and others. AI algorithms are developed and used in smart grids for their monitoring and control. AI is expected to become more and more advanced as science and technologies develop. AICAS poses many challenges that need to be considered for future developments in this field. They require significant power consumption, and their use in low-power devices is one of the biggest challenges. It requires the development of energy efficient software and hardware solutions to reduce energy consumption. AICAS uses large amounts of data for training and efficient operations related to data protection and management. They can be used to interpret and understand the reasoning of decision-making systems in the context of developing explainable AI solutions and provide transparency and insight into decision-making processes. To operate efficiently, AICAS requires significant hardware resources related to issues such as performance limitations, scalability and high cost. This challenge requires efficient processing and storage of large amounts of data. Due to the lack of standardization in AICAS, the evaluation and comparison of different AI systems and models is challenging and requires the development of benchmarks and standard evaluation metrics to allow an evaluation and comparison of AI systems and models. The interaction between humans and AI leads to some issues such as B. lack of trust, user experience issues, and ethical concerns. Addressing this challenge requires proper and easy-to-use AI interfaces, ethical frameworks and regulations to ensure that AI systems are transparent, trustworthy and useful to society. Additional research and development on AICAS is needed to address these issues and ensure the efficiency and reliability of these technologies.

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Despite significant advances in the field of AICAS and electronics, there are still some unanswered questions that scientists and researchers are working to resolve. AICAS often require large amounts of power to perform calculations, which can limit their scalability and practical use. Researchers are working on developing energy-efficient hardware similar to brain-like neuromorphic systems. One of the biggest challenges of AI is the lack of interpretability and transparency of the models under consideration. This is particularly problematic in AI applications for critical decision-making, such as finance and medicine. Researchers are working on developing methods to improve AI models. AICAS can be subject to attacks that can affect data. For this reason, researchers are working to create secure and more robust AI models capable of detecting and repelling attacks. AI systems often use large amounts of data, and sometimes the data can be private and confidential. An important attempt by researchers is to develop efficient methods to train AI models on sensitive data and protect your privacy. AICAS are quite complex and require tight integration of software and hardware to optimize their performance and energy efficiency. Due to the continuous development of AICAS, new opportunities and challenges may arise, and engineers and research scientists must continue to work together to solve such problems and tasks.

AICAS are constantly evolving due to the development of new research in this field. Attempts to describe the functioning and structure of the human brain are related to the ongoing research, design and improvement of neuromorphic computing. Neuromorphic integrated chips are based on neural networks to process information, and these networks have high efficiency and low power consumption. Edge computing relies on processing data on devices located at the edge of a network, rather than transmitting data using a centralized cloud. This solution can reduce latency and improve the speed and efficiency of AI applications. Quantum computing represents a new type of computation for dealing with complex AI problems and tasks. Quantum computers are based on quantum bits (qubits) instead of traditional bits and can perform multiple computations simultaneously to make AI better using explainable AI (XAI) that is more transparent and interpretable. XAI is an emerging field in AI and it allows users to understand how AI systems make decisions, providing explanations and insights for conclusions. Hardware acceleration based on specialized hardware is applied to accelerate AI calculations. Examples of hardware acceleration are GPUs and FPGAs, which can perform multiple AI tasks and problems faster and more efficiently than traditional processors. United Learning is based on a decentralized method for AI training; Data is stored on local devices and only the combined results are shared with the central server. These solutions can improve data protection and reduce the amount of data transmitted over a given network. Generating new data based on patterns in existing data is based on generative AI models. Examples of generative AI models are Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The field of AICAS is constantly evolving with new advances and discoveries.

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4. Future of AICAS

AICAS plays an important role in advancing modern industries and technologies. You have a promising outlook and suggest possibilities for future development. The development of more energy-efficient hardware is the foundation for other advances in AICAS. Ongoing hardware improvements, such as Neuromorphic, Quantum and Edge Computing developments, may allow AICAS to work more efficiently and be used in various applications. Its increasing efficiency, productivity and improved decision-making processes determine its applicability in various sectors such as medical, finance, transport and many others. AI technologies are becoming more and more accessible to a wide variety of users due to the continuous improvement of their user-friendly platforms and tools. As AICAS becomes more accessible, organizations and individuals will be able to leverage AI technologies and create new AI applications. Advances in explainable AI can improve the reliability of these systems and give people more confidence in the results. AICAS is expected to integrate with other advanced technologies such as 5G networks, Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain, and this would improve its efficiency and applicability, opening up new opportunities for modernization and advancement. Continued exploration of some AI-related ethical considerations such as B. privacy, bias, and liability would allow for the development of AI technologies that are reliable, transparent, and beneficial to society. The continuous innovations in hardware, better applicability in different industries and general improvements in AICAS are very promising. These perspectives illustrate its potential for the progressive transformation of many sectors and provide good opportunities for growth and innovation.

5. Conclusions

The development of AICAS started with the first AI circuits and systems, relying on Boolean algebra and simple logic gates, and extends today to advanced neural networks and deep learning algorithms. In earlier stages of development, AICAS were limited by their availability only on past hardware technologies. However, with advances in the AI ​​industry, more complex devices and schemes have been established, such as the single-layer perceptron neural network used for simple pattern separation. Currently, AICAS are much more innovative due to rapid advances in hardware technologies. The availability of more complex neural networks and deep learning algorithms with various applications is strongly related to advances in the development of specialized integrated chips for AI, such as FPGAs, GPUs, TPUs and memristors.

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AICAS has enabled advances in many different areas of science and industry, such as natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics. The future development and applicability of AICAS is very promising due to continuous and rapid advances in hardware technologies. Continuous improvements in neuromorphic computing can lead to the generation of efficient and reliable AI systems capable of solving various complex problems and tasks. The development of quantum computing can bring a significant improvement in AI and the application of very complex and fast algorithms to solve various problems in science and industry.

AICAS has come a long way since its inception and can contribute to more exciting and valuable future developments in technologies, science and society.

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